Tag Archives: Answer

What do I need to do to answer Problem Questions effectively?

One of the most common problems when you begin a practical college or university course is that, outside of mathematics, in most cases you will have little or no dealing with the effective answering of problem questions. Therefore, this article will look to take you through some of the key principles that you need to appreciate for effectively partaking in the answering of problem questions in your coursework or exams in brief in practice

For one thing there is a need to remember that, when looking to answer a problem question, the core aspect you are being tested on is your ‘problem-solving abilities’ that you will need in your future career that study in this subject will lead you to like being a lawyer. This is because you will usually have to look to solve practical problems or, at the very least, help to solve problems that are brought before you as part of your work. Therefore, in view of the fact that problem-solving skills are learnt through the answering of problem questions, you need to gain experience so that the academic exercise of solving problem questions will help you hone your skills from an early stage.

With this in mind, in a subject like law, one good way of approaching the answering or problem questions is to look to try and place yourself in the position of a lawyer who has been approached by a client with a problem that needs solving. This means that you will usually have to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a given client’s position in practice in order to then be able to show your ability in this regard in answering a problem question.

As a result, in much the same way as, by way of illustration, the lawyer must listen carefully to understand their client’s narrative, you must read the problem thoroughly making sure you appreciate the significance of every word along with the factual circumstances described in the story to get a sense of the general problem that needs solving. In so doing, I have found that one particularly good tip is to take notes of all the key parties and map their connections as you are reading the hypothetical scenario through. Moreover, there is also a need to appreciate the facts provided are not always straight-forward in view of the many twists and turns, latent facts and other tricks that you have to piece together in answering your problem question.

In addition, one given hypothetical scenario may contain one or more situations which present one or more different issues to be addressed and categorising these in terms of priority. Furthermore, there is also a need to look to draw reasonable inferences to then allow you to deal with the possible issues of concern that may arise in any given case to answer a problem question. This is because you must identify the key issues in the given scenario for answering your problem question and frame them correctly by showing how you came to your conclusions in this regard.

There is also a need to look to apply matters that you have learnt from studying the subject matter to practical hypothetical scenarios which is FUNDAMENTAL to answering the problem questions that you have been set effectively. Therefore, it is important to look to embark on the task of applying the rules in a given subject to the facts of a given hypothetical case for answering problem questions that you have been set. This is because most candidates often fall short when they stop at the point of describing the legal rules, but without making an effort to show how those rules help to resolve the factual problem. As a result, the majority of your marks will be earned depending on as to how well you show the application of the rules of a given subject to the facts of the given case for answering problem questions and so I would advise you to practice as much as possible to learn the skills that you need.

Therefore, this article should hopefully get you thinking in the right way about this kind of academic work so that you are then able to expand on the ideas presented briefly here with the other resources you find useful including ‘The Secret Guide to Academic Writing & Study’ via http://www.academicfx.co.uk that provides you with practial examples and walkthroughs.

Andrew teaches students around the world in high schools, colleges and universities in the UK and abroad with their studies in many subjects to get the best grades. Moreover, an accummulation of many of these techniques have also been put together in ‘The Secret Guide to Academic Writing & Study’ that is avaliable now through the AcademicFx website at http://www.academicfx.co.uk to help you achieve your academic and future career aspirations through practical advice.

Contact me now at postmaster@academicfx.co.uk for further assistance in this and other areas where you are having any problems in any area of your education and I will be only to happy to offer you assistance wherever I can in helping you to further your studies and your future academic achievements.

Why a Six Sigma Based Quality System May be the Answer for Pharmaceutical Companies

Life science companies experience no lack of quality system ideas, quality system conversation, quality system arguments, quality system implementation methods, etc.

After all, even the required systems of quality management such as the FDA’s GMP, GCP and GLP regulations and guidelines are specified to a certain extent but still don’t determine all of the whens, hows, whys and whats of in-house quality system management. As a result, life science companies are left with a few decisions to make:

1) On what system(s) should a quality system be based?

2) How will the quality system’s data be managed?

3) How will the quality system’s documentation be managed?

4) What will be the KPIs (key performance indicators) of the quality system?

5) How will a need for improvement be justified?

Note: The first of these questions will be the focus of this article although questions #2 and #3 will also be discussed as auxiliaries to discussion regarding #1.

What Quality System is the Right Quality System?

First of all, it is essential for life science companies to realize that every quality system is nothing more than stated limits of discipline and a successful quality system is made of stated limits of discipline that are followed. Those stated limits of discipline however must originate from a specific mentality or template for a “starter quality system.” The quality system that a life science company selects will of course continue to evolve but upon the initiation of a new or revised quality system it is important to choose the “quality system mentality” best suited to any given company.

This can be difficult.

After all, some say lean manufacturing must be adhered to; others vouch for PAT and still others Six Sigma. Some say a combination of these systems work best and all of them are probably (at best) only partially right. So, how will pharmaceutical companies make the best decision for the unique needs of their own company?

Could Six Sigma be the right starter quality system?

This article posits the idea that as a starter quality system, Six Sigma is ideal for the pharmaceutical industry. This position does not exclude lean manufacturing or PAT systems of management, but instead recommends Six Sigma as the initial system of practice. Why? For starters, Six Sigma ideals are based on intense statistical analysis and serious data collection, and the pharmaceutical industry just happens to have colossal amounts of data and documentation. This data and documentation, with the appropriate amount of time, could be analyzed according to Six Sigma methods and then used to adjust less-than-stellar aspects of the quality system. The Six Sigma system also focuses on the near obliteration of deviation or nonconformance events which for pharmaceutical companies falls exactly into line with regulatory standards and quality management goals.

Easier Said Than Done

Any reader may easily volley this article’s position by stating that Six Sigma is difficult to implement and that most pharmaceutical companies don’t want to change anyways. According to an online source1 however the benefits of making the right changes within the very wealthy pharmaceutical industry are staggering. The online article states that “the potential worldwide cost savings from efficiency improvement could be as high as $90 billion.” This article still acknowledges however that the reader is correct in saying that Six Sigma is difficult to implement; Six Sigma implementation requires know-how and the appropriate instrumentation. That know-how and instrumentation will vary greatly since it is likely that a very small percentage of Six Sigma black belts would be even remotely qualified to cross the pharmaceutical threshold (an intelligent in-house manager might do well simply studying up on Six Sigma principles).

Six Sigma tools may vary as well. After all, the “Six Sigma mentality” doesn’t specify tools (the Six Sigma calculator wouldn’t necessarily even be a required purchase) but does specify the principles of data collection, analysis and a decrease in deviation.

What tools can be used for the implementation of Six Sigma?

A vast variety of software solutions might be able to help provide the needed Six Sigma success but should be chosen carefully. For most pharmaceutical companies it seems likely that management tools/software for data collection (data and document management software) and tools for any type of deviations or nonconformance management could be valuable. Since small amounts of deviation usually depend on the speed of information distribution within a company (although even that assumption could be subjected to Six Sigma analysis), an automated training solution triggered by changes in SOPs, work instructions, etc. might also be of great value.

Conclusion

Essentially the keys of Six Sigma are rigorous data collection, analysis and a decrease in deviation, principles which would seem to attract the naturally rigorous pharmaceutical industry.

1 http://www.contractpharma.com/articles/2007/10/lean-practices-in-a-life-sciences-organization

Marci Crane is a copywriter for MasterControl in Salt Lake City, UT. For more information in regards to quality system solutions, please feel free to contact a MasterControl representative.

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