There are various research done on Self Esteem. The tem “Self Esteem”, it is oldest concepts in psychology. It is first appeared as a Coinage of American Psychologist and Philosopher William James in 1890.
Self Esteem has long and varied history, no less than three major types of definitions in the field. Each definition has developed has its own research, findings and practical, applications.
The first and original definition states that a ratio calculated by dividing one’s success in areas of life of importance to a given individual by the failures in them or one’s success. Problems with this approach come from making self esteem dependent upon success, this approach shows inborn instability because failure can occur at any moment.
Maurice Rosenberg and Social learning theorist defined self esteem in the mid of 1960 as, It is stable sense of personal worth or worthiness which is measurable by self report testing. This definition used more frequently for research but it involves some problems of boundary definitions.
In 1969, Nathaniel Branden briefly defined self esteem as “….the experience of being competent to cope up with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness”. It gives balanced definition which seems to be capable of dealing with limits of defining self esteem primarily in terms of competence or worth alone.
Branden describe self esteem as follows
1) Self esteem as a basic human need, i.e., “…it makes an essential contribution to the life process”, Self Esteem is indispensable to normal and healthy self development and has a value for survival.
2) self-esteem works as an automatic and expected consequence of the sum of individuals’ choices in using their awareness
3) If something experienced as a part of, or background to, all of the individual’s thoughts, feelings and actions.
According to Brown Psychologist Joachim I. Krueger, whatever positive outcomes attributed to high self esteem are not sustained by research.
Krueger and three more faculty member from other universities formed that conclusion. There reports found across most measures school and job performance, violence and crimes and health. There research highlights high self esteem does not prevent children from smoking, engaging in early sex or taking drugs. Here is an exception was that high self esteem and reduced chances of the eating disorder bulimia in females.
The self esteem movement began during 1980 in California with idea that many of society’s problems were related to low self esteem. The California legislature financed the team to increase self esteem in an effort to reduce welfare dependency and unwanted pregnancy, crime, drug addiction and other various problems.